Postgraduate Certificate in Human Resource Management (HRM)

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Postgraduate Programme #010.1: Human Resource Management, Postgraduate Programme, Leading to Postgraduate Certificate in Human Resource Management, Accumulating to a Postgraduate Diploma, with 168 additional Credit-Hours. Click to view and download its PDF Brochure.

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Doctor of Philosophy {(PhD) {University College London (UCL) - University of London)};

MEd Management (University of Bath);

Postgraduate (Advanced) Diploma Science Teacher Ed. (University of Bristol);

Postgraduate Certificate in Information Systems (University of West London, formerly Thames Valley University);

Diploma in Doctoral Research Supervision, (University of Wolverhampton);

Teaching Certificate;

Fellow of the Institute of Management Specialists;

Human Resources Specialist, of the Institute of Management Specialists;

Member of the Asian Academy of Management (MAAM);

Member of the International Society of Gesture Studies (MISGS);

Member of the Standing Council for Organisational Symbolism (MSCOS);

Member of ResearchGate;

Executive Member of Academy of Management (AOM). There, his contribution incorporates the judging of competitions, review of journal articles, and guiding the development of conference papers. He also contributes to the Disciplines of:

Human Resources;

Organization and Management Theory;

Organization Development and Change;

Research Methods;

Conflict Management;

Organizational Behavior;

Management Consulting;

Gender & Diversity in Organizations; and

Critical Management Studies.

Professor Dr. Crawford has been an Academic in the following UK Universities:

University of London (Royal Holloway), as Research Tutor;

University of Greenwich (Business School), as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management;

University of Wolverhampton, (Wolverhampton Business School), as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor), in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management;

London Southbank University (Business School), as Lecturer and Unit Leader.

His responsibilities in these roles included:

Doctoral Research Supervisor;

Admissions Tutor;

Postgraduate and Undergraduate Dissertation Supervisor;

Programme Leader;

Personal Tutor.

 He was formerly an Expatriate at:

Ministry of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria;

Ministry of Science and Technical Education, Sokoto, Nigeria;

University of Sokoto, Nigeria;

College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria; and

Former Editor-In-Chief of ‘Sokoto Journal of Education’.



For Whom This Course is Designed

This Course is Designed For:

 Board of Directors;

Business Analysts;

Business Development Experts;

Business Owners;

Corporate Directors;

Corporate Managers;

Divisional Managers;

Employee Development Managers;


Executive Managers;


HR Generalists;

HR Managers;

HR Professionals;

Human Resource (HR) Consultants;

Human Resource (HR) Development Specialists;

Human Resource (HR) Directors;

Human Resource (HR) Executives;

Human Resource (HR) Generalists;

Human Resource (HR) Managers;

Human Resource (HR) Planners;

Human Resource (HR) Professionals;

Human Resource (HR) Recruitment Specialists;

Human Resource (HR) Strategists;

Human Resource Development Managers;

Human Resource Managers;

Human Resource Professionals;

Junior Managers;

Line Managers;

Management Consultants;

Management Development Directors;

Management Graduates;

Management Lecturers;

Middle Managers;


Organisational Development Practitioners;

Organisational Leaders;

Performance Consultants;

Project Team Leaders;

Senior Executives and Managers;

Senior Leaders who oversee the activities of teams;

Senior Mangers;

Specialist Team Leaders;


Talent Management Officials;

Talent Managers;

Team Development Personnel;

Team Leaders;

Team Supervisors;

Training and Development Managers;

Training Coordinators and Administrators;

Training Directors;

Training Managers;

Transaction Analysts;

Venture Capitalists;

All others who are desirous of mastering the Employee Resourcing Process; Training Needs Analysis; Trainer Training; Workforce Planning; Humana Resource Recruitment; Human Resource Selection; Human Resource Strategising; Team Formation, Development, Behaviour, Resonation Control, Transactional Analysis and other salient aspects of Team Dynamics.



Programme Objectives

By the conclusion of the specified learning and development activities, delegates will be able to:

  Demonstrate a heightened understanding of Critical Incident Reports and their value in Training Needs Analysis;

 Address some of the shortcomings of Traditional Appraisal Systems;

Address the salient issues associated with Dysfunctional Behaviours;

people and organisations define and manage their learning;

Ascertain how return on investment can be achieved to justify the funding for the employee’s training;

Ascertain the concept of Delegation;

Ascertain the importance of Delegating Tasks;

Demonstrate their ability to employ Transactional Analysis in a Team Context;

Demonstrate their ability to formulate a comprehensive Motivation Strategy;

Demonstrate their ability to lead a Recruitment and Selection Team;

Ascertain the relationship between an incumbent’s experience and role enactment;

Calculate Return on Investment (ROI) from education, training and development;

Cite Specific legislation and related cases relevant to particular job design issues;

Analyse education, training, and development programmes, determining their potential effectiveness (fit-for-purpose);

Analyse how delegation contributes towards effective time management;

Analyse the concept of leasing in relation to delegating;

Analyse the perception in each role;

Apply appropriate rewards and, or punishment that are applied to a given team situation, thereby promoting ‘Team Functionality’;

Apply group dynamics to organisational settings;

Apply the ‘equity’ theory to work situation from a ‘differentiation perspective’, rather than an ‘equality perspective’;

Ascertain how lifelong learning marks a decisive turning point in the way that Cite the link between culture and managerial action;

Clarify roles in team settings;

Conceptualise classical organisational theory and design, Neo-Classical, Humanistic, and Contingency Organisational Design Approaches;

Conduct an Appraisal Interview;

Conduct Individual and Panel Interviews;

Critically appraise existing motivation strategy within their organisations, identifying and addressing gaps;

Customise, through a synthesis of existing systems, and an appropriate appraisal scheme that takes account of their unique cultural setting;

Deal with external organisational accountability;

Defend the use of periodic and exit interviews;

Define objectives, generally;

Define reward in an employee relation context;

Define a role set;

Define the concept of role;

Define, describe, and analyse the nature of an organisation;

Demonstrate a heightened knowledge of how training needs might be devised from Strategic Plans;

Demonstrate a heightened understanding of how Organisational Training Needs Analysis, Subsystem Training Needs Analysis and Individual Training Needs Analysis are conducted;

Demonstrate a heightened understanding of role relationships;

Demonstrate a heightened understanding of the group processes and organisational change;

Demonstrate a heightened understanding of the types and levels of  team leadership;

Demonstrate a heightened understanding of the underlying notions of Organisational Development, establishing how a effective Training Needs Analysis might lead towards its enhancement;

Demonstrate a high level of understanding of a team attempts to replace a situational leader, to enhance stability, acceptability or renewed or clarified mission or objectives;

Demonstrate an awareness of how a Personnel Demand Forecast (PDF) is conducted;

Demonstrate an awareness of the ‘Team Building and Maintenance Roles’ that will improve team effectiveness;

Demonstrate an effective ‘leader behaviour’ when dealing with dysfunctional behaviours;

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of motives and their value in organisational and subsystem effectiveness;

Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of power and how it might be applied for the benefit of the organisation;

Demonstrate an understanding of the issue of ‘responsibility’ and how it translates in superior-subordinate relationships in organizations

Demonstrate an understanding of the notion that societal socio-economic hierarchy might be informally represented in teams;

Demonstrate an understanding of the value of Internal Selection;

Demonstrate how popular motivation theories have contributed to our understanding of worker behaviour;

Demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy that they have devised for dealing with intra-team competition;

Demonstrate the need to balance the ‘individualist’ and ‘collectivist’ perspective to motivation;

Demonstrate the relationship between Job Evaluation or Job Tasks and Role Analysis and the determination of training gaps, in Training Needs Analysis;

Demonstrate the use of Human Resource Plan in the determination of individual training needs;

Demonstrate their ability to manage recruitment and selection within a ‘resourcing context’;

Demonstrate their ability to avert the halo and thorny effects in appraisal;

Demonstrate their ability to conduct a Human Resource Audit;

Demonstrate their ability to conduct a Job Analysis;

Demonstrate their ability to deal with the psychological effect of disbandment;

Demonstrate their ability to determine the type of commitment that motivates specific individuals to join an organisation;

Demonstrate their ability to manage conflict effectively, incorporating the occasions when it should be encouraged;

Demonstrate their ability to translate motivation theory into practice

Demonstrate their appreciation of the fact that workers belong to different classes, in society;

Demonstrate their appreciation of the need for a variance in intrinsic and extrinsic values of motivation;

Demonstrate their awareness of the value of team cohesiveness and team solidarity, and the dangers of over-cohesiveness;

Demonstrate their competence in the measurement of efficiency gains and suggest ways on how to enhance it;

Demonstrate their grasp of the fundamentals of Performance Management;

Demonstrate their understanding of the ‘risky shift syndrome’, outlining the steps that they will take to avert it;

Demonstrate their understanding of the importance of ‘Gatekeeping’ in teams’ formal settings;

Demonstrate their understanding of the legal bases of Employee Resourcing;

Demonstrate their understanding of the theoretical and practice bases of Team Dynamics;

Demonstrate what Personnel Deployment Charts (PDC) are and how they may be used in the determination of Departmental Training Needs;

Demonstrate their understanding of the social and psychological relevance of the stages of formation of a team;

Describe and enumerate some single and dual status organisations;

Describe at least two Non-Conventional Selection Methods;

Describe role as the behavioural expectations of a role set;

Describe the key procedures and skills required to implement Action Learning;

Describe the Organisational Learning Process as part of a Training Needs Analysis;

Describe the role of Training in the promotion of Macro Organisational Development and Micro Organisational Development;

Design an effective induction Package;

Design A Job Description and a Personnel Specification for specified roles;

Design effective ways of stabilizing staff turnover;

Detect Dysfunctional Behaviours;

Determine how Client or Customer Feedback can be used in determining gaps that workers’ pre-existing in skills, knowledge and expertise;

Determine how Task Competencies Analysis Report can be used in enhancing the effectiveness of departmental and individual training needs analysis;

Determine some exemplifying role behaviour;

Determine the appropriate extrinsic rewards that might contribute to workers’ improved performance;

Determine the boundary relationships of a role set;

Determine the criteria that are used to evaluate remuneration structure;

Determine the criteria that are used to evaluate a Remuneration Structure;

Determine the different ways of developing synergy in the learning process;

Determine the factors that negatively or positively affect remuneration systems;

Determine the objectives of Performance Appraisals;

Determine the optimum team size for its effective functioning;

Determine the organisation’s opportunity costs in providing Education, Training, and Development for its employees;

Determine the place of an incumbent’s perceived role expectations on his or her role enactment;

Determine the resources necessary to enhance individual and team performance;

Determine the training applications of Experiential Learning and learn how to utilise effectively the powerful potential of Learning From Experience;

Determine why a temporary team is likely to be more problematic to lead than a permanent one;

Develop a strategy to manage poor performance;

Develop effective communication strategies that might be applied to team settings, minimising technical language;

Develop the necessary skills, through some collaborative learning opportunities;

Describe, with examples, the concepts of Managerial Control, Worker Autonomy, and Professionalism, in Mechanistic and Organismic Organisations;

Differentiate between Operational Centralisation and Decentralisation;

Differentiate between Social Objectives and Business Objectives;

Outline some of the factors that might be associated with poor performance;

Distinguish between Education, Training and Development as important Organisational Investments;

Distinguish between Internal, Upward and Downward ‘Organisational Accountability’;

Enumerate the factors influencing Effective Delegation;

Establish a basis for Standard Setting in their Teams;

Establish and Monitor Work-related Targets;

Establish the Efficiency Gains that an organisation might derive from the Education, Training, and Development of its employees;

Establish the link between a role and its External Environment;

Establish the link between role and the Internal Environment;

Establish the Symbiotic Relationship between Power, Culture and Organisational Structure;

Distinguish between Command Teams, Boards, Committees, and Task Forces;

Distinguish between Formal and Informal Organisations;

Distinguish between groups and mere aggregations;

Distinguish between informal and formal Management Succession Charts;

Distinguish between Temporary Committees and Standing Committees;

Distinguish between the different sets of Motivation Theories, notably Content, Process, and Reinforcement;

Elucidate the concerns that managers have, resulting in their hesitation to Delegate;

Describe self-ideal as a behavioural construct;

Describe the bureaucratic organisations, adhocratic organisations, mechanistic organisations, organismic organisations;

Describe the democratic incumbent, autocratic incumbent, the generous incumbent, the dedicated incumbent, the social self and the role of each;

Describe the effort that they will make to enhance the ‘critical faculty’ of their team;

Elucidate the use of Management Succession Plans in the determination of Individual Developmental Needs;

Enumerate examples of Business and Non-Business Organisations;

Enumerate the Approaches, Methods and Techniques of Training Needs Analysis, explaining each in detail;

Establish the relationship between the Self-Ideal and a Performance Enhancer;

Evaluate the appropriateness of the application of some theoretical aspects of motivation to specific situations;

Evaluate the effectiveness of Individual Appraisal Systems to Performance Measurement;

Evaluate the effectiveness of their strategy for addressing the situations where team members seek sympathy;

Exhibit a knowledge of the intimidating effect that class might have on team members, and, hence, the leader’s responsibility to ensure that this informal hierarchy is dispensed with in the promotion of a ‘Classless Team’;

Exhibit an understanding of the desirability of a limited turnover of staff;

Exhibit tact in discouraging team members’ distracting behaviours;

Exhibit their ability to take appropriate measures to improve Individual and Team Performance;

Explain and evaluate the rationale for Performance Related Pay (PRP);

Explain at least three Appraisals Systems;

Explain facets Numbers1 and 2 of Authority;

Explain how managers and subordinates benefit from Delegating;

Explain how social objectives might lead to Profitability Gains;

Explain how Supervisory Reports might best be used to determine the Skills, Knowledge. and Attitude deficiency of an individual, in the performance of his or her role;

Explain the bases for the feeling of  ‘Togetherness’ or ‘Awareness’ in an ‘Aggregation’;

Explain the bases of Reward Management;

Explain the concept of Delegation as Internal Promotion;

Explain the concept of Organisational Culture;

Explain the concept of Segmental Expectations;

Explain the different Classification of Culture;

Explain the occasions in which a situational leader is likely to emerge;

Explain the process and value of Human Resource Audit;

Explain the process of 360 Degrees Feedback, the data analysis process, and the way in which the information that has been produced, might be used in determining the know, skills and attitudes that need to be developed for the individuals concerned;

Explain the Reward Model;

Explain the Team Typological Bases;

Explain the underlying concept of Investors in People (IIP);

Explain what Assessment Centres are and the way in which the information from them might be used as a basis for determining Individual Competency Levels;

Explain why a team’s disbandment might have a negative psychological effect on members and the team leader

Explore the bases for ‘Division of Labour or Work’, in organisations and their relation to organisational effectiveness;

Expound the Facets of Authority, providing practical examples;

Expound the common trends in the popular motivation theories;

Formulate a workable Motivation Strategy;

Formulate and evaluate a recommended Remuneration Package;

Suggest the organisational benefits that are associated with initiatives akin to ‘Investors-in-People’;

Establish the positive bases of a Divisional Organisational Structure;

Highlight the value of Operational Plans in the determination of Departmental Training Needs;

Highlight the value of Training Needs Survey in Training Needs Analysis;

Identify at least three tasks that can, and should, be delegated in Internal Selection;

Identify how an organisation might facilitate Organisational Development;

Identify the Role Segments of a specified Role;

Identify some Organisational Tasks, determining the bases of their grouping;

Suggest the main concerns that managers have, regarding delegation;

Identify the difference between delegating authority, on the one hand, and delegating task, on the other;

Identify the rationale for and definition of Training Needs Analysis (TNA);

Identify the main sources of information for TNA, and the factors which should be taken into consideration when choosing which among the approaches will be used;

Illustrate a Matrix Organisational Structure;

Provide Illustrative examples of Simple, Functional, and Divisional Organisational Structures;

Suggest some of the constraints that any specific UK Protective Legislation place on the Recruitment, Selection, and Management of Employees;

Suggest the difference in interpretation of Groups and Teams;

Suggest the importance of Reward Management in organisation;

Suggest ways of improving Group Morale, while enhancing the entity’s effectiveness

Suggest ways to counteract the effect of the Informal Hierarchy in Non-Command Teams;

Illustrate how the Contingency Approach to Motivation might be applied to different situations;

Illustrate how they might resolve interpersonal problems among team members;

Illustrate how they will determine the contribution of each team member to the entity’s Goal Accomplishment;

Illustrate how they will enhance the issue of ‘gatekeeping’ to ensure that team members, in general, participate in team meetings, extending support to the weak, ensuring that introverted team members are not intimidated or ‘crushed’ by the extroverts;

Illustrate the organisational, individual, and subsystems benefits of Performance Appraisal;

Successfully, implement a ‘360 Degree Appraisal Programme’;

Indicate how they will establishing key competencies in their teams;

Indicate how they will help their team members to channel their energies into task performance, establishing realistic goals;

Indicate how they will recognise resonation in their teams, outlining the steps that they will take to avert or reduce its occurrence;

Indicate how they will reward exceptional performance in their teams;

Indicate how they would address the problem of ‘blocking’, effectively, in their teams;

Indicate the contribution of Training and Development in Worker Motivation;

Indicate the range of tangible rewards that might be utilised in a team;

Indicate the steps that they will take to harmonise the relationship in their teams;

Internalise the dysfunctional effect of ‘resonation’ in a team context;

Outline the degree of ‘role specificity’ that exists in Mechanistic Organisations, on the one hand, and Organismic Organisations, on the other;

Outline the importance of delegation in increasing workflow and productivity;

Suggest the importance of Lines of Authority and Accountability in organisations, and their effect on Organisation-wide Communication;

Illustrate their organisation’s accountability to owners or sponsors, clients, users, or customers, creditors, and sector or industry;

Suggest how best to delegate authority, for effective task performance;

Explain how one might delegate responsibility with delegated tasks;

List at least two Matrix Organisational Variants;

Name at least two Structural Typologies, providing a vivid description of each;

Locate Performance Appraisal within a Performance Management Structure;

Position Performance Management in an appropriate context;

Locate Performance Related Pay, Productivity Bonuses, and other Remuneration Inducements, within an existing motivation theory;

Manage the Motivation Process, taking account of the differences in workers’ preferences and expectation;

Manage the process of motivation, taking account of  existing socio-cultural and economic differences;

Manage the risk of internal ‘Sabotage’;

Order the Team Formation Stages, explaining the psychological issues that beset them, and how they might affect Organisational Functioning;

Outline the steps that they will take to avert Groupthink and promote Teamthink;

Promote Business Objectives, through the marketing of their Business Objectives;

Practicalise the use of Individual Performance Appraisal Reports in their Individual and Departmental Training Needs Analysis;

Propose an effective remedy for ‘Team-Member Withdrawal’;

Propose an effective way of dealing with Interfering Behaviour;

Propose standards of measuring competence in teams;

Propose suitable intangible rewards that might be applied to a team situation;

Provide a basis for Team Standard Setting, accompanied by an effective Evaluation Progress;

Provide a practical guide with respect to the use of Strategic Operational Review, in determining Organisational and Subsystem Training Needs;

Provide a working definition of Accountability

Propose an appraisal of a specific Remuneration System;

Demonstrate their awareness of the notion that team members’ class consciousness might relate to their positions in the organisation or society;

Provide an individually synthesized proposal for dealing with Aggressiveness in teams;

Provide examples of Command Teams, highlighting the situations in which a leader might belong to two, simultaneously;

Provide examples of how a leader should encourage that desirable behaviours exist in a team;

Suggest a satisfactory way of addressing ‘Special Pleading’ in teams;

Demonstrate their awareness of the importance of Focus Groups in the Learning Process;

Indicate their ability to identify Performance Improvement in teams;

Identify ineloquent team members, suggesting how they might be encouraged to contribute more ideas;

Relate specific Recruitment, Selection, Retention and Exit Issues to UK and another country’s Legislation;

Identify ‘Resonation’ as an issue in Team Effectiveness, generally;

Suggest how best Training Needs Analysis Questionnaires might be constructed, analysed, and used in determining the ‘Knowledge, Skills and Attitude Gaps’;

Suggest how they might employ an effective Meeting Management that discourages resonation;

Suggest how to determine which individual members of a team can improve their performance, and, subsequently, their contribution to the team, thereby Harnessing Team Synergy;

Suggest some Performance Indicators, with measures to enhance Team Performance Levels;

Suggest how training needs might be derived from the examination of an organisation’s Tactical Plans;

Suggest ways of improving Organisational Culture;

Propose, and formulate, a Pay or Remuneration Structure;

Demonstrate their understanding of an Organisational Structure as Roles and Relationships;

Demonstrate their understanding of Reflective Practice as part of the Training Process;

Demonstrate their understanding of the concept of an Internal Selection Mechanism;

Use a Candidate Assessment Form in Short Listing and Interviews;

‘Weight’ a Candidate Assessment Form, using the Job Description and Personnel Specification;

Work their way through Business Plans, determining the Skills and Expertise that are needed to execute them;

Identifying how the relationship between future Role Requirement, help to  determine Subsystem and Individual ‘Training Gaps’.

Programme Contents, Concepts, and Issues

Contents of 'Human Resource Management Programme,

Leading to Postgraduate Certificate in

Human Resource Management

Module #

Module Title




Business and Organisational Analysis




Team Dynamics: Team Leadership




Motivating Workers: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards




Training Needs Analysis: Determining Training Needs




Managing Individual Performance




Employee Resourcing: Recruitment and Selection








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M1: Part 1 - Contextualising Organisational Analysis

Organisations: A Definition;

Formal and Informal Organisations: A Distinction;

Organisational Task and Task Groupings;

Business vs. Non-business Organisations;

Objectives Defined;

Social Objectives;

Business Objectives;

Perusing Business Objectives through Business Objectives;

Profitability of Social Objectives:

Direct Gains;

Indirect gains;

Division of Work or Labour;




Authority Demythified;

Authority - Facet #1;

Authority  - Facet #2;



M1: Part 2 - Delegation as an Operational Imperative

A Working Definition of Delegation;

The Concept of ‘Leasing’;

Why Delegate?;

How Managers Benefit from Delegating;

How Subordinates Benefits from Being the Recipient of a Delegated Task;

Managerial Concerns about Delegating;

Delegating Authority for  Effective Task Performance;

Delegating Responsibility with Delegated Task;

Factors Influencing Effective Delegation;

Delegation in a Time Management Context.


M1: Part 3 - Contextualising Delegation

Delegation as Internal Promotion;

Informal Management Succession Charts;

Formal Management Succession Charts;

Internal Selection Mechanism;

Delegation and External Candidature;

Authority: Facets #1 and 2 Contextualised.


M1: Part 4 - Role in an Organisational Context

Role: A Definition;

The ‘Role Set’;

Role and Role Relationships;

Exemplifying Roles;

The Role Actor or Incumbent;

Role Perception;

Incumbent’s Role Perception;

Individual’s Role Perception;

Role and the External Environment;

Role and the Internal Environment;

Defining the Role Set;

Role Segments;

The Relationship between an Incumbent’s Experience and Role Enactment;

The Relationship between an Incumbent’s Role Perception and His or Her Role Performance;

The Place of an Incumbent’s Perceived Role Expectations on His or Her Role Enactment;

Segmental Expectations;

The Role as the Behavioural Expectations of a Role Set;

The Boundary Relationship of a Role Set;

Role Expectations of Social Support;

The Democratic Incumbent;

The Autocratic Incumbent;

The Generous Incumbent;

The Dedicated Incumbent;

The Social Self;

Self-Ideal as a Behavioural Construct;

Self-Ideal and a Performance Enhancer.


M1: Part 5 - The Organisation’s Internal and External Accountability

Internal Organisational Accountability;

Upward Organisational Accountability;

Downward Organisational Accountability;

The Risk of Internal ‘Sabotage’;

External Organisational Accountability;

Accountability to Owners or Sponsors;

Accountability to Clients, Users, or Customers;

Accountability to Creditors;

Accountability to Sector or Industry.


M1: Part 6 - Organisational Design Metaphors and Relationships

Organisational Structure as Roles and Relationships;

Lines of Authority and Accountability in Organisations;

Unitary Command System: Classical Organisational Theory and Design;

Dual and Multiple Command Systems: Towards Neo-Classical, Humanistic and Contingency Organisational Design Approaches;

Operational Centralisation;

Operational Decentralisation;

Bureaucratic Organisations;

Adhocratic Organisations;

Mechanistic Organisations;

Organismic Organisations;

Single Status Organisations;

Dual Status Organisations;

Role Specificity in Mechanistic Organisations;

Role Specificity in Organismic Organisations;

Managerial Control vs. Worker Autonomy and Professionalism in Mechanistic Organisations;

Managerial Control vs. Worker Autonomy and Professionalism in Organismic Organisations;

Structural Typologies;

The Simple Organisational Structure;

Snippet of Functional Organisational Structure;

Snippet of Divisional Structure;

Bases of Divisional Organisational Structure;

Snippet of Matrix Organisational Structure;

Matrix Organisational Types.


M1: Part 7 - Understanding Organisational Culture

Concept of Organisational Culture;

Cultural Classification:

Role Culture;

Task Culture;

Power Culture.

The Relationship between Power, Culture and Organisational Structure;

Culture and Managerial Action;

Organisational Culture Improvement.



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M2: Part 1 - Salient Team Dynamic Issues

Groups and Aggregations: Points of Distinction;

The Type and Permanence of the Leadership of a Team;

When Does a Situational Leader Emerge?

How Does the Team Attempts to Replace a Situational Leader, Enhance Stability, Acceptability or Renewed or Clarified Mission or Objectives?

Why Does a Temporary Team More Problematic to Lead Than a Permanent Team?

Why Does Team Disbandment Have a Negative Psychological Effect On Members and Leader?;

An Aggregation - ‘Togetherness’ or ‘Awareness’?

Aggregation and Interaction;

Team or Group: A Definition and Distinction;

Team Dynamics.


M2: Part 2 - Team Typologies and Their Bases

Team Typologies;

Team Typological Bases;

Command Team;


Temporary Committees;

Standing Committees;

Task Forces;


Command Teams and the Organisational Hierarchy;

Command Teams and the Organisational Functioning.




M2: Part 3 - Team Formation, Stage Significance and Task Implications

Team Formation;

Team Formation Stage 1: Forming;

Team Formation Stage 2: Storming;

How ‘True-To-Life’ or Realistic Are the Forming and Norming Stages of Team Development?

Team Formation Stage 3: Norming;

Team Formation Stage 4: Performing or Total Integration;

Team Formation Stage 5: Adjourning or Disbanding;

Deal with the Psychological Effect of Disbandment.


M2: Part 4 - Effective Team Leadership (1)

Dysfunctional Behaviours;

Addressing Dysfunctional Behaviours;

Dealing with Aggressiveness;

Handling Blocking;

Dealing with Interfering Behaviour;

Dealing With Intra-Team Competition;

Addressing Situations Where Team Members Seek Sympathy;

Dealing with Member Withdrawal;

Addressing Special Pleading;

Leader Behaviour in Dealing with Dysfunctional Behaviours;

Being Tactful in Discouraging Distracting Behaviours;

Encouraging Desirable Behaviours;

Using Tangible Rewards;

Using Intangible Rewards;

Being Mindful of Team Situation;

Applying Appropriate Rewards and, or, Punishment;

Promoting Team Functionality.


M2: Part 5 - Effective Team Leadership (2)

Team Building and Maintenance Roles: Improving Team Effectiveness;

Encouraging Members;


Standard Setting;


Determining the Optimum Team Size;

Providing Team Incentives;

Encouraging Conflict;

Averting Groupthink;

Avoiding the Risky Shift Syndrome;

Employing Transactional Analysis;

Employing Effective Diversity Management and Discouraging Resonation;

Encouraging Members;

Harmonising Team.


M2: Part 6 - Enhancing Team Performance (1)

Performance Management;

Solving Interpersonal Problems among Team Members;

Helping Team Members to Channel Their Energies Into Task Performance Establishing Realistic Goals;

Developing Effective Communication Strategies;

Minimising Technical Language

Clarifying Roles;

Standard Setting - Establishing Standards and Evaluating Progress;

A Determination of the Contribution of Each Team Member to Goal Accomplishment;

Recognising and Acknowledging Performance Improvement;

Rewarding Exceptional Performance;

Establishing Key Competencies.


M2: Part 7 - Enhancing Team Performance (2)

Establishing Acceptable Performance Levels;

Noting Performance Indicators;

Measuring Competence;

Which Individual Members Can Improve Their Performance – and Subsequently, Their Contribution to the Team as A Whole;

Harnessing Team Synergy;


Making It Possible For Others to Participate;

Supporting the Weak;

Ensuring That Introverted Team Members Are Not Intimidated or ‘Crushed’ By the Extroverted;

Recognising the Ineloquent Team Members;

Without Relevant Current;

Information to Perform Evaluative Role.


M2: Part 8 - Addressing Resonation and Issues Associated with Transactional Analysis

Resonation as an Issue in Team Effectiveness;

Recognising Resonation;

Taking Steps to Avert or Reduce Resonation;

‘Cautioning’ Resonators;

Determining the Optimum Team Size;

Numbers That Are Best For the Operational Effectiveness of a Team –

Team Constitutional Contingent Factors;

Team Numbers and Member Interaction;

Team Leader’s Direct Communication with Team

Members and the Intervening Factors;

Team Communication as Interaction;

Necessity of Communication Reciprocation within Teams;

Team Transaction;

Team Transitional Analysis;

The ‘Child’ In the Team;

The ‘Adult’ In the Team;

The ‘Parent’ In the Team;

The Team Leader as a Transaction Analyst.


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M3: Part 1 - Conceptual and Contextual Motivation Issues

Directing or Leading: Setting The Stage;

The Conceptual Bases of Motivation;

Theoretical Bases of Motivation: An Overview;

Distinguishing Between Knowledge and Skills;

Competence and Performance: A Conceptual Exploration;

Is there a Definitive Relationship between Competence and Motivation?


M3: Part 2 - Motivation Theories and Their Protagonists (1)

Content Theories and Some of Their Contributors

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Analysis of Maslow’s Claims

McClelland's Studies

Taylor: Money and Motivation

Motivator-Hygiene Factor: Herzberg’s Contribution.


M3: Part 3 - Motivation Theories and Their Protagonists (2)

Process Theories;

Equity Theory;

Goal-Setting Theory;

Expectancy Theory;

Equitable Reward Systems;

Reinforcement Theories.


M3: Part 4 - Universalist and Contingency Approaches to Motivation

Motivation and Contingency Theory;

The Contingency Approach to Motivation;

The Collectivist vs. the Individualist Perspective of Motivation;

Common Trends in Motivation Theories;

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Values of Motivation;

Motivation and Worker Behaviour

M3: Part 5 - Contextualising Motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Values

The Extent to Which Salary or Wages Inducement Motivate Workers

Performance Related Pay (PRP)

Productivity Bonuses

Efficiency Gains

Profit Share

Social Differentiation in Motivation

Culture Differentiation in Motivation

Wealth as a Factor in Motivation

Class as an Issue in Motivation

Individual Expectation and Motivation

Individual Preferences as a Motivating Factor

Designing an Effective Motivation Strategy


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M4: Part 1 - Contextualising Training Needs Analysis

Organisational Development in Context;

Training an Macro Organisational Development;

Training an Micro Organisational Development;

Rationale for Training Needs Analysis (TNA);

Training Needs as Gaps;

Organisational Training Needs Analysis;

Subsystem Training Needs Analysis;

Individual Training Needs Analysis;

Approaches to Training Needs Analysis;

Methods of Training Needs Analysis.


M4: Part 2 - Education, Training and Development as Investment

Difference between Education, Training and Development;

Education, Training and Development, and ‘Opportunity Cost’;

Education, Training and Development for ‘Efficiency Gains’;

Defining Efficiency Gains;

Measuring Efficiency Gains;

Improving Efficiency Gains;

Training as Investment;

Investors in People (IIP): The British Model;

Evidence from ‘Investors-In-People’;

Calculating Return on Investment (ROI) from Education, Training and Development.


M4: Part 3 - Learning in Organisations and Organisational Learning

The Organisational Learning Process;

The Individual Learning Process;

The Importance of Focus Groups in the Learning Process;

The Action Learning in Organisational Learning;

The ‘Learning Organisation’ and its facilitation of Organisational Development;

Experiential Learning;

Reflective Practice;

Collaborative Learning;

Synergy in the Learning Process;

Learning to Learn;

Life-Long Learning;

Understanding Group Processes and Organisational Change.


M4: Part 4 - Utilising Possible Sources of Information in Training Needs Analysis (TNA) -1

Strategic Plans;

Tactical Plans;

Operational Plans;

Strategic Operational Review;

Human Resource Plan;

Succession Plan;

Human Resource Audit;

Critical Incident Reports;

Individual Performance Appraisal Reports;

Personnel Deployment Charts;

Business Plans.


M4: Part 5 - Utilising Possible Sources of Information in Training Needs Analysis (TNA) - 2

Job Evaluation or Job Tasks and Role Analysis;

Client or Customer Feedback;

360 Degrees Feedback;

Supervisory Reports;

Critical Incident Report;

Training Needs Analysis Questionnaires;

Assessment Centres;

Training Needs Survey;

Task Competencies Analysis Report.


M4: Part 6 - Focusing on Training Policy and Strategy in TNA

Training Policy Vs. Business Strategy;

Training Policy:

Matched with Specific Organisational Needs;

Response to Existing Organisational Ineffectiveness.

Linking Training Policy to Business Strategy:

The Element of Finite Resources;

Good Business Sense;

Enhancement of Organisational Objectives.

Other Arguments.

Education & Training for Personal Development:

Relation to Micro OD;

The Spin-off of Micro OD;

Policy: Aligned to Business Strategy;

Improved Effectiveness.

General Questions:

Contribution to Competitive Advantage or Improved Organisational Functioning;

Training and Unemployment.



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M5: Part 1 - Human Resource and Performance Management

Assessing the Nature and Causes of Performance Problems;

Managing Poor Performance;

Managing Absence;

Dealing with Harassment;

The Effective Management of Retirement, Redundancy, Dismissal and Voluntary Turnover;

Evaluating the Mechanisms Available For Preventing or Alleviating Poor Performance;

Working From Corporate Mission and Strategy;

Performance Targets;

Tactical Performance Targets;

Operational Performance Targets;

Linking Performance Management with Operational Processes and Systems;

Initiate Appropriate Reward Systems;

Individual Development Plans;

Performance and Reward Cycle.


M5: Part 2 - Staff Performance Appraisal (1)

Performance Appraisal: A Definition;

Objectives of Performance Appraisal;

Why Some Managers Are Afraid To Appraise;

Performance and the Halo Effect;

Performance Appraisal and the Thorny Effect;

Organisational Benefits and Performance Appraisal;

Individual Benefits of Performance Appraisal;

Subsystem Benefits of Performance Appraisal;

The Appraisal Cycle.


M5: Part 3 - Staff Performance Appraisal (2)

Systematising Performance Appraisal;

Some Problems with Performance Appraisal;

Punitive Aspects of Performance Appraisal;

Some Popular Appraisal Systems;

Graphic Rating Scales;


Paired Comparison;


Critical Incident;

Management by Objectives (MBO);

360 Degree Appraisal;

The Appraisal Setting.

M5: Part 4 - Reward Management: Developing an Effective and Equitable Career Structure (1)

Employee Reward: A Definition;

Defining Reward Management;

The Basis of Reward Management;

Reward Management Strategies: Provide Support for Corporate Values;

Reward Management   Derived From Business Strategy and Goals;

Reward Management and Its Links to Organizational Performance;

Reward Management and the Driving Force for Individual Behaviour;

Reward Management and Its Relationship to Leadership Styles;

Reward Management and Competition;

Reward Management   and the Attraction to High Calibre Personnel;

Encouraging Positive and Effective Organisational Culture;

Culture and Organisational Values;

Level and Type of Motivation.


M5: Part 5 - Reward Management: Developing an Effective and Equitable Career Structure (2)

Remuneration Systems;

Factors Affecting Remuneration Systems;

Government’ Reduced or Increased Spending;

Increased or Decreased Labour Force Availability;

Increased Demand for Quality;

Organization’s Expansion, Contraction or Diversification Plans;

Increased Competition;

Remuneration Packages, Including Salary and Welfare Benefits and Payments;

Pay or Remuneration Structures;

Pay Structures, Purpose, Criteria and Types;

Performance Related Pay (PRP).



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M6: Part 1 – Strategising Employee Resourcing

Logicalising Internal and External Selection Processes;

Internal and External Selection Processes as an Organisational Development Phenomena;

Rationalising Internal Selection as a Process;

Staff Turnover and its Negative and Positive Impact On the Organisation;

Recruitment and Selection as a Resourcing Activity;

The Importance of Human Resource Forecasts;

Methods of Forecasting Human Resource Needs of the Organisation;

Strategic Operational Review’ (SOR) As Prerequisite For Human Resource Forecasting;

Importance of Human Resource Audit;

Conducting Human Resource Audit;

Periodic and Exit Interviews.


M6: Part 2 - The Legal Bases of Employee Resourcing

The Psychological Contract and Its Legal Bases

Genuine Occupational Qualification (GOQ);

Employees, Workers, and Contractors: Their Distinction and Legal Implications;

Avoiding Accusations of Discrimination in Employment;

Holiday Entitlement;

Job Design and the Equality and Other Regulations:

Mechanistic Job Design;

Biological Job Design;

Perceptual Job Design;

Motivational Job Design.

Legal Issues in Recruitment and Selection: Avoiding Discrimination;

Statutory Information Requirement and Timescale for New Employees;

Employees as Intellectual Capital;

Exploiting the Organisation’s Intellectual Property;

Protecting the Organisation’s Intellectual Property;

Employee vs. Employer in Ownership of Intellectual Property Rights;

Patent and Intellectual Property Rights;

Research and Development and Intellectual Property Rights;

Research and Development and the Patent Act;

‘Reverse Engineering’ and Intellectual Property Rights;

Instant Dismissal or Summary Dismissal?;

Employment of ‘Workers’, Subject to Immigration Control;

Statutory Instruments   2014 No. 1262 - Immigration - The Immigration (Employment of Adults Subject To Immigration Control) (Maximum Penalty) (Amendment) Order 2014.


M6: Part 3 -  Systematising the Recruitment and Selection Process

Systematic Recruitment and Selection Process;

Job Analysis;

Job Description;

Personnel Specification;

Market Targeting;

Designing and Placing Advertisement;

Weighting and Using a Candidate Assessment Form (CAF);

Non-Conventional Personnel Selection;

Short Listing Candidates;

Conducting Selection Interviews;

The problems and benefits of Web-based Recruitment;

International E-Selection: Its Organisation, and Management;

International Video-Based Selection: Understanding and addressing its associated problems;


Benefits of Internal Selection;

Problems with Internal Selection.

Human Resource Planning (HRP).


M6: Part 4 -  Practicalising the Recruitment and Selection Process

Determining or Predicting Vacancies;

Conducting Job Analysis;

Designing Job Description;

Designing Personnel Specification;

Market Targeting;

Designing and Placing Advertisement;

Weighting and Using a Candidate Assessment Form (CAF);

Short Listing Candidates;

Conducting Selection Interviews;

Deciding on Preference Order of Candidates;

Notifying Successful Candidates.


M6: Part 5 -  Organisational Retention Strategy

Levels of Individual Commitment of Potential and New Recruits:

Moral Commitment;

Remunerative Commitment;

Calculative Commitment.

Efforts to Transform Remunerative and Calculative Commitment to Moral Commitment;

Training, Education, Development as Talent Management Enhancement;

The Value of Staff Induction;

Organising an Induction Programme;

Running an Induction Programme;

Conducting Periodic Interviews;

Addressing Issues Emerging for the Exit Interviews;

Conducting Exit Interviews.


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