Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced International Legal Studies.

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Programme Number 136 - Advanced International Legal Studies, Intensive Full-Time {3 Months (5 Days -30 Hours) per Week} Programme, Leading to Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced International Legal Studies.

Programme Number 136 - Advanced International Legal Studies, Intensive Full-Time {3 Months (5 Days -30 Hours) per Week}  Programme, Leading to Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced International Legal Studies.


Doctor of Philosophy {(PhD) {University College London (UCL) - University of London)};

MEd Management (University of Bath);

Postgraduate (Advanced) Diploma Science Teacher Ed. (University of Bristol);

Postgraduate Certificate in Information Systems (University of West London, formerly Thames Valley University);

Diploma in Doctoral Research Supervision, (University of Wolverhampton);

Teaching Certificate;

Fellow of the Institute of Management Specialists;

Human Resources Specialist, of the Institute of Management Specialists;

Member of the Asian Academy of Management (MAAM);

Member of the International Society of Gesture Studies (MISGS);

Member of the Standing Council for Organisational Symbolism (MSCOS);

Member of ResearchGate;

Executive Member of Academy of Management (AOM). There, his contribution incorporates the judging of competitions, review of journal articles, and guiding the development of conference papers. He also contributes to the Disciplines of:

Human Resources;

Organization and Management Theory;

Organization Development and Change;

Research Methods;

Conflict Management;

Organizational Behavior;

Management Consulting;

Gender & Diversity in Organizations; and

Critical Management Studies.

Professor Dr. Crawford has been an Academic in the following UK Universities:

University of London (Royal Holloway), as Research Tutor;

University of Greenwich (Business School), as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor), in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management;

University of Wolverhampton, (Wolverhampton Business School), as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor), in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management;

London Southbank University (Business School), as Lecturer and Unit Leader.

His responsibilities in these roles included:

Doctoral Research Supervisor;

Admissions Tutor;

Postgraduate and Undergraduate Dissertation Supervisor;

Programme Leader;

Personal Tutor.

He was formerly an Expatriate at:

Ministry of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria;

Ministry of Science and Technical Education, Sokoto, Nigeria;

University of Sokoto, Nigeria;

College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria; and

Former Editor-In-Chief of ‘Sokoto Journal of Education’.



For Whom This Programme is Designed

This Programme is Designed For:

Human Rights Workers

Human Rights Officers

Humanitarian Workers

Humanitarian Officers

Armed Forces Officers

Armed Forces Commissioned Officers

Armed Forces Non-Commissioned Officers

Heads of Forces of Occupation

Humanitarian Lawyers

United Nations Officials

Embassy Officials

High Commission Officers

Officers of Statutory Human Rights Organisations

Officers of Non-Governmental Humanitarian Organisations

Human Rights Lawyers

International Relations Specialists

Legal Practitioners

Legal Professionals


Law Students

Human Rights Lecturers and Tutors

Humanitarian Lecturers and Tutors

Law Graduates



Political Science Graduates

Political Science Professors

Any other personnel wishing to gain expertise in Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues, relevant to Peacetime and Conflict Zones.

 Graphics About Postgraduate Diploma Programme Duration and Cost

 The programme cost does not include living accommodation. However, students and delegates are treated to the following:

     Free Continuous snacks throughout the Event Days;  

     Free Hot Lunch on Event Days;                           

     Free City Tour;             

     Free Stationery;                               

     Free On-site Internet Access;

     HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s   Diploma – Postgraduate; or

     Certificate of Attendance and Participation – if unsuccessful on resit.


HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Complimentary Products include:


      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Leather Conference Folder;

      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Leather Conference Ring Binder/ Writing Pad;

      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Key Ring/ Chain;

      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Leather Conference (Computer – Phone) Bag Black or Brown;

      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s 8GB USB Flash Memory Drive, with Course/ Programme Material;

      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Metal Pen;

      HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute’s Polo Shirt.


Location:  Central London and International Locations


Click to Home Page Contents


Modules 1 & 2

Principles of Human Rights


Module 1

Human Rights and International Law


Predominant Western Legal Systems


The French Legal System


The Origins of the French Legal system

*       The Making of the Law

*       French Public Law

*       French Private Law

*       French Courts Operation

*       Getting a Lawyer in France


The United States' Legal System


*       Three Branches of the Government

*       The Federal Courts

*       The Supreme Court

*       Military Tribunals

*       Three Levels of Review

*       Fact and Law

*       Federal Law and Jurisdiction

*       State Law and Jurisdiction


 The UK Legal System – England and Wales


*       UK Legislation

*       UK Public Law System

*       English Law System

*       Family Law

*       Classification of UK Law

*       Enforcement of Civil and Criminal Law in England and Wales

*       Legal Executives

*       Solicitors

*       Barristers

*       Magistrates’ Courts, Magistrates and District Judges of Magistrates’ courts

*       County Court and District Judges

*       Crown Court and Its judges

*       High Court and Its judiciary

*       Court of Appeal and Lords Justices of Appeal

*       House of Lords and the Law Lords

*       Judicial Appointments and Tenure


Human Rights Historical Background


*       Origin of Human Rights

*       Classification of Human Rights

*       The Evolution of the Human Rights Law

*       Adoption of the UN Charter

*       From Declaration to Convention

*       Steps in the Evolution of Convention

*       The US Ratification Process

*       Reporting and Monitoring


General Principles

*       Human Rights of Individual in International Law

*       Themes in the International Human Rights Law

*       Universalism and Regionalism

*       Interdependence of Human Rights

*       The Scope of Human Rights Law – Individual and Group Rights

*       The Public/Private Divide in Human Rights Law

*       The Sui Generis Character of the International Rights Law

*       The Role of International Law (Law of Nations)

*       The Law of Aliens

*       Diplomatic Laws

*       The Laws of War – International Humanitarian Law

*       The Core International Human Rights Instruments

*       Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)

*       Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

*       United Nations Convention against Torture (CAT)

*       Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

*       Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

*       International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant

*       Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW or more often MWC)


International Law

*       Introduction

*       Nature and Definition of International Law

*       Sources of International Law

*       International Conventions

*       International Customary Law

*       General Principles of Law

*       Subsidiary Sources of International Law

*       Additional Sources of International Law

*       Jus Cogens and Human Rights Law



Module 2

The United Nations (UN), Geneva and Hague Convention and the International Criminal Court (ICC)


The United Nations System and the Modern Human Rights Regime

*       Introduction

*       Limitations of the Charter

*       Principal Organs of the United Nations

*       The General Assembly

*       The Security Council

*       The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

*       International Court of Justice

*       The Trusteeship Council

*       The Secretariat

*       The Human Rights Council


The Geneva and Hague Convention


*       Geneva Convention 1949

*       History

*       The Conventions and their Agreement

*       Protocols

*       Application

*       Enforcement

*       The Hague Conventions

*       Hague Convention of 1899

*       Hague Conventions of 1907

*       Geneva Protocol to Hague Convention


The International Criminal Court (ICC)


*       Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

*       Rationale behind the Establishment of International Criminal Court

*       Signatories to the Establishment of International Criminal Court

*       Seat of International Criminal Court

*       How is the Court Funded?

*       International Criminal Court vs. Other Courts

*       Negotiated Relationship Agreement between the International Criminal Court and the United Nations

*       How Do Cases Come Before the International Criminal Court?

*       Crimes within the Jurisdiction of International Criminal Court

*       Types of Jurisdiction

*       Territorial Jurisdiction

*       Temporal Jurisdiction

*       Complementarity

*       Structure of International Criminal Court

*       Presidency

*       Judicial Divisions

*       Office of the Prosecutor

*       Registry

*       Headquarters, Offices and Detention Unit

*       Procedures

*       Trial

*       Rights of the Accused

*       Victim Participation and Reparation

*       Co-operation of by States not Party to Rome Statue

*       Amnesties and national Reconciliation Processes

*       Allocation of Judges

*       Acceptance of Jurisdiction

*       Oppositions to the Establishment on International Criminal Court

*       Important Issues:

*       Can The Prosecutor’s Own Initiative to Open an Investigation?

*       Will The ICC Prosecute All Persons Suspected Of Committing The Most Serious Crimes?

*       Can Other Courts Try The Perpetrators That The ICC Does Not Prosecute?

*       Does The ICC Have The Power To Arrest Suspects?

*       Who Has To Execute The Warrants Of Arrest?

*       What Are The Conditions Of Detention At The Detention Centre In The Hague?

*       What Penalties May Be Imposed By The Court?

*       Where Are The Sentences Served?

*       What Is The Role Of The Trust Fund For Victims?

*       Situations and Cases Brought Before the International Criminal Court

*       Democratic Republic of the Congo – The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo

*       Uganda – The Prosecutor v. Joseph Kony



Modules 3-6

International Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law


Module 3

The International Bill of Rights and

Regional Protectionism of Human Rights



*       Progress Towards The International Bill of Rights and Regional Protectionism of Human Rights

*       The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

*       Range of Rights Contained and the Rationale for International Consensus

*       Nature of Obligations and Relevance for Human Rights Practitioner


International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

*       Establishing the Need For Civil and Political Rights

*       The International Covenants and the Right to Self-Determination

*       General Nature of Obligations

*       Analysis of Substantive Rights

*       The Right to Life, Prohibition of Torture and the Issues Concerning Capital Punishments

*       Right to Liberty and Security of Person, Prohibitions of Arbitrary Detentions and Unfair Trials

*       Rights to Privacy, Freedom of Expression, Conscience, Opinion, Assembly and Association

*       The Interaction between Principles of Equality and Non-Discrimination with Minority Rights

*       The Human Rights Committee (HRC)

*       The Reporting Procedure

*       General Comments

*       Inter-State Applications

*       The Individual Complaints Procedure

*       Admissibility Requirements under the Optional Protocol

*       Admissibility and Procedural Requirements Connected With the Content of the Petition

*       Other Admissibility Requirements


The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

*       Making a Case for Economic and Socio-Cultural Rights

*       Arguments over the Superiority of Rights

*       General Nature of Obligations

*       Self-Determination and the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

*       The Right to Work and Rights of Workers

*       Social Security and Family Rights

*       Adequate Standard Of Living and Mental and Physical Health

*       Right to Education

*       Cultural Rights

*       Implementation Machinery

*       Innovative Procedures


Module 4

Regional Protectionism of Human Rights


Europe and Human Rights

*       Introduction

*       The Council of Europe and Protection of Civil and Political Rights

*       Analysis of Substantive Rights

*       The Right to Life and the Prohibition of Torture or Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

*       The Right to Liberty and Security

*       The Right to Fair Trial

*       Privacy, Family Life, Home and Correspondence

*       Institutional Mechanisms and Implementation Machinery

*       Complaints Procedure under Protocol 11

*       Inter-State Applications

*       Individual Complaints

*       Remedies before the Court

*       Significant Principles Emergent from the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)


Europe and Human Rights

*       Introduction

*       European Social Charter 1961 (Revised 1996)

*       The European Union

*       The Organisation For Security And Co-Operation In Europe (OSCE)


The Inter-American System for Protection of Human Rights

*       Introduction

*       The Organization of American States (OAS) Charter System and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man

*       The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

*       The American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)

*       Analysis of Substantive Rights

*       Right to Life, Liberty, the Prohibition of Enforced Disappearances and Torture

*       Equality and Non-Discrimination

*       Privacy, Religion, Thought, Expression, Assembly and Association

*       Special Rights

*       Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

*       Procedures under the American Convention

*       The Inter-American Court of Human Rights

*       Forms of Jurisdiction

*       Fact-Finding Missions of the Inter-American Commission


The African System for Protection of Human Rights


*       Introduction

*       The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and Its Distinctive Features

*       Analysing the Substantive Rights in the Charter

*       The Meaning of Peoples’ Right in African Human Rights Law

*       The African Commission

*       The African Court of Justice and Human Rights

*       Protecting Human and Peoples’ Right


Additional Human Rights Mechanisms


*       A Brief Examination of Islam and Human Rights

*       Islam and Human Rights Law

*       The Sources and Content of the Sharia

*       Understanding the Scope of Sharia

*       Islamic International Human Rights Law

*       Controversy over Women’s Rights and Rights of Religious Minorities

*       Islamic Institutions and Approaches toward Human Rights Law

*       The Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC)

*       League of Arab States

*       South-Asia and Human Rights Law

*       Association of South-East Asian Nations



Module 4

Group Rights

Equality and Non-Discrimination

*       Elements of Equality and Discrimination;

*       Equality and Non-Discrimination with International Law

*       Religious Discrimination and International Law

*       Inconsistencies within International Standards and Difficulties in Implementation

*       Right to Racial Equality and Non-Discrimination in International Law

*       Thematic Discussions


The Right of Minorities


*       Minority as a Diverse Category

*       Definition of Minorities

*       Analysing the Substantive Rights of Minorities

*       Modern Initiatives in International Law

*       Regional Protection of Minority Rights: An Overview


The Rights of People and ‘Indigenous Peoples’


*       Indigens and their Global Occurrence;

*       Peoples’ Right to Self-Determination

*       Indigenous Peoples in International Law

*       Rights of Indigenous Peoples

*       Indigenous Peoples and the UN System

*       Other Initiatives


The Rights of Women


*       Gender and It’s Social Global Contexts

*       Rights of Women and Human Rights Regime

*       Combating Discrimination against Women and the International Human Rights Movement

*       The Role of the United Nations

*       The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

*       Reservations and the Attempts to Find Consensus on the Provisions of the Convention

*       The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

*       Violence against Women


The Rights of the Child


*       The Child in Varying Cultural Contexts;

*       International Instruments on the Rights of the Child

*       Analysing the Substantive Provisions

*       Definitional Issues and the Obligations of the State Parties to Non-Discrimination

*       Best Interest of the Child

*       Developmental Rights of the Child

*       Respect for the Views of the Child

*       Freedom of Expression, Thought, Conscience and Religion and Association and Assembly

*       Measures to Combat Violence, Abuse, Exploitation and Maltreatment of Children

*       Children in Wars and Conflict

*       Concerns of Disability and Health

*       Educational Rights

*       Criminal Justice Rights

*       Implementation of the Convention

*       Innovative Features and Other Initiatives


Rights of Persons with Disabilities


*       Deconstructing Disability;

*       The United Nations and the Right of the Disabled People

*       The UN Effort towards a Focused Approach to Disability

*       The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

*       Equality and Non-Discrimination

*       Vulnerable Communities within Disabled Persons

*       Independence, Accessibility and Participation in All Aspects of Life

*       Right to Life, Security and Prohibition from Inhuman and Degrading Punishment

*       The Right to Education, Health and Employment

*       Right to Participation in Political, Public and Cultural Life, Recreation and Sports

*       Implementation of the Convention

*       The Optional Protocol to Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

*       Developments

*       National Policies in Respect of the Convention

*       Regional Human Rights Law and Disability

*       The European System

*       Organization of American States

*       The African Union

*       Other Systems of Regional Protection


Rights of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons


*       What is Displacement?;

*       Classification of Refugees;

*       Establishing a Nexus between Refugeeism and Mass Displacement with Human Rights Law

*       International Law and Protection of Refugees

*       Regional Approaches to Refugees

*       International Law and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)


Rights of Migrant Workers and Their Families


*       Establishing the Context For Migrant Workers;

*       Migrant Workers and Human Rights Movement

*       The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

*       The Role of the International Labour Organization in Protecting the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

*       Regional Standard



Module 5

Issues Arising in the International Human Rights Law


International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law


*       Contextualising International Criminal Law (ICL)

*       Definition and Characteristics of International Criminal Law (ICL)

*       The Development Process of International Criminal Law

*       The International Criminal Court (ICC)

*       Categories on International Crimes

*       War Crimes

*       Crimes against Humanity

*       Genocide

*       Aggression

*       Substantive Principle of International Criminal Law

*       Recent Developments at the International Criminal Court

*       Mixed International Criminal Tribunals


International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law


*       Introduction

*       Historic Antecedents

*       Religious Ordinances on the Laws of War

*       Early Efforts to Develop Humanitarian Laws

*       The Content of International Humanitarian Law

*       Application of International Humanitarian Law

*       Entitlement to Take Part in the Conflict

*       Human Rights and the Amelioration of the Condition of the Sick and Wounded at the Field or At Sea (GC1 and GC2)

*       Rights of Prisoners of War (POWs)

*       Protection of the Civilian Persons in Times of War/Armed Conflict

*       Human Rights and Humanitarian Values in the Conduct of Warfare

*       Distinguishing Civilian from Military Targets and the Strict Focus on Achieving Military Objectives

*       Prohibition on Causing Unnecessary Suffering

*       The Principle Proportionality and Protection Of Civilians

*       IHL, the Right of Self-Determination and National Liberation Movements

*       IHL, Non-International Armed Conflicts and the Protection Offered Under Protocol II

*       Provisions for Special Protection

*       Enforcing International Humanitarian Law


Torture as a Crime in International Law and the Rights of Torture Victims


*       Introducing The Issue of Torture

*       The Convention against Torture

*       The Committee against Torture (CAT)

*       Implementation Mechanisms

*       The UN Special Rapporteur, the Questions of Torture and other Initiatives Taken by the UN

*       Regional Initiatives


International Human Rights Law and Enforced Disappearance


*       Introduction

*       Backdrop to the International Convention

*       International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance

*       Analysing Provisions of the Convention

*       Jurisdiction, Investigation, Extradition, Assistance and Co-Operation between State Parties

*       Victims of Enforced Disappearance and Enforced Disappearances of Children

*       Implementation of the Convention

*       Regional Instruments on Forced Disappearances


Terrorism as a Crime in International Law


*       Introduction

*       The Definitional Issues

*       Terrorism and International Law – Historical Developments

*       Acts of Terrorism and Human Rights Violations

*       International Legal Developments since 11 September 2011


Module 6

Selected Universal Human Rights Instruments


Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: Protection of Persons Subjected To Detention or Imprisonment

*       Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

*       Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners

*       United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty

*       Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

*       Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

*       Safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty

*       Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials

*       Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials

*       United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules)

*       United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules)

*       Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System

*       United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines)

*       Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power

*       Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

*       Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers

*       Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors

*       Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions


Slavery, Slavery-Like Practices and Forced Labour


*       Slavery Convention

*       Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention Signed At Geneva on 25 September 1926

*       Supplementary Convention on the Abolition Of Slavery, The Slave Trade, And Institutions And Practices Similar To Slavery

*       Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)

*       Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)

*       Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others

*       Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime


Nationality, Statelessness, Asylum and Refugees


*       Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

*       Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons

*       Convention relating to the Status of Refugees

*       Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees

*       Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live


Social Welfare, Progress and Development


*       Declaration on Social Progress and Development

*       Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition

*       Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind

*       Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace

*       Declaration on the Right to Development

*       Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights

*       Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity


Modules 7-10

International Human Rights Law in

Times of Peace and Armed Conflict


Module 7

Human Right Law General and World-wide Applicability, Human Right Violation Prevention and Limitations and Derogations



Applicability of Human Right Law


*       Human Right Law Application in Times of Peace and Armed Conflict

*       Scope of Application

*       Treaty Provisions

*       Interpretation of the Reference to ‘Territory’ In the ICCPR Provision

*       Prevailing Law in the Absence of Jurisdiction Clause

*       Defining Jurisdiction

*       State Lost Control of Parts of Its National Territory

*       Control of another State Territory

*       Responsibility for Transfer to Other States

*       Effect Over Persons Outside Own Territory

*       Activities Affecting Persons outside the States Bound By a Regional Treaty

*       International Peacekeeping Operations

*       Relationship between Jurisdiction and Imputability

*       Relationship between Jurisdiction and Occupation


Securing and Preventing Violation of Rights


*       Treaty Provisions and General Principles

*       Ensuring or Securing Rights

*       Implementation of Rights

*       Separation of Powers and Basic Principles of Democracy

*       The Requirement of Reality in the Justice System

*       Steps in Preventing Violations of Specific Rights

*       Observance of Due Diligence

*       Nature of Punishment

*       Impossibility of Ensuring Respect

*       Conflict of International Obligations

*       Awareness of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

*       UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Interpretation

*       ESCR Interpretation

*       Hybrid Obligations

*       Non-Discrimination Requirements

*       Treaty Provision

*       Defining Discrimination

*       Distinctions on the Basis of Nationality

*       Profiling In Counter-Terrorism Measures

*       Right to a Remedy

*       Treaty Provisions

*       Requirement for Remedy Where a Violation of a Treaty Right Is Concerned

*       ‘Effective Remedy’ Defined

*       Right To a Remedy Vis-À-Vis Other Rights

*       International Counter-Terrorism Measures and Right to a Remedy

*       Right to a Remedy during States of Emergency


Limitations and Derogations


*       Foundation Issues

*       Absolute Rights

*       Inherent Limitations on Freedom

*       Measures during Emergency

*       Non-Discrimination

*       ECHR and the Margin of Appreciation

*       Derogations and Limitations to Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

*       Imposing Limitations

*       Treaty Provision: An Overview

*       Provided By ‘Law’

*       Purpose

*       Necessity

*       Abuse of Rights

*       System of Derogations

*       Overview of the Treaty Provisions

*       ‘Emergency’

*       Prohibited Derogations

*       Importance of Maintaining the Rule Of Law

*       Interpretation of ‘To the Extent Strictly Required By the Exigencies of the Situation’



Module 8

International Humanitarian Law, International Measures and Prohibitions


The Role of International Humanitarian Law in Human Rights Law


*       The International Court of Justice

*       United Nations Human Rights Council

*       Human Rights Treaty Bodies

*       Treaty Requirements

*       The African Commission on the Human and People’s Rights

*       Inter-American Commission and Court of Human Rights

*       The European Court of Human Rights

*       Non-State Actors

*       Introduction

*       International Humanitarian Law Approaches and Human Right Treaties

*       Human Right Responsibilities of Non-Estate Actors and Individuals

*       Benefits of Using International Law in the Assessment of Human Rights


Preventing Terrorism and Protecting Human Rights through Some International Measures


*       Introduction

*       Counter-Terrorism Treaties

*       UN Security Council Measures:

*       Criminalizing Acts of Terrorism and Providing Mutual Assistance

*       Freezing Assets and Travel Restriction: Sanctions

*       Counter-Terrorism Measures to Respect Human Rights

*       UN Human Rights Commission and Human Rights Council Measures

*       Resolution on Counter-Terrorism Before 2001

*       Resolution on Counter-Terrorism After 2001

*       Special Rapporteurs on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights

*       UN General Assembly and UN Secretary-General

*       Counter-Terrorism Treaties

*       Resolutions on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights

*       Global Counter-terrorism Strategy

*       Binding UN Security Council Measures and Human Rights: International Case Law


Arbitrary Deprivation of Life: Prohibitions


*       Treaty Provision and Basic Principles

*       Law Enforcement

*       Basic Concept

*       Legislative Framework, Training and Advanced Planning

*       Arrest

*       Dealing With Demonstrations and Riots

*       ‘Non-Lethal’

*       Employment of Force during Armed Hostilities

*       Determining the Need to Use Armed Force and Adequate Planning

*       The Need for Identifying Suspected Rebels

*       Protecting the Lives of the Injured Persons

*       Death or Disappearance of Persons in the Power of Government Agents

*       Responsibility of the State When Killings Are Committed By Non-State Actors

*       Investigating Violations of Right to Life

*       Armed Conflict and Arbitrary Deprivation of Life


Torture, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: Prohibitions


*       Nature of the Prohibition

*       Inhuman Treatment or Punishment

*       Degrading Treatment or Punishment

*       Torture

*       Death Penalty

*       Indefinite Detention

*       Isolation

*       Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Violence

*       Use of Physical Force and Methods of Restraint

*       Corporal Punishment

*       Discrimination

*       Lack of Medical Care

*       Poor Physical Conditions of Detention

*       General Principle of Non-Refoulment

*       Evaluating That the Risk Is Real

*       Uniformity of Rule and Evaluation Method

*       Diplomatic Assurances

*       Extraordinary Renditions

*       Preventive and Deterrence Measures

*       Methods of Interrogation

*       Statements Made As A Result of Torture

*       Access to Lawyer

*       Transparency of Detention

*       Medical and Health Examination

*       Detainee to be Informed of His Rights

*       Investigating a Complaint

*       Supervision by a Competent Body and Complaint Procedure

*       Humane Treatment


Enforced Disappearances: Prohibitions


*       Defining ‘Enforced Disappearance’

*       Enforced Disappearance as a Violation of Human Rights

*       Serious Multiple Human Rights Violation

*       The Right to Life

*       The Prohibition of Torture, or Inhuman or Degrading Treatment

*       The Right to Liberty and Security of Person

*       Right to a Remedy

*       Human Rights Instruments Associated With Forced Disappearances

*       United Nations Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Forced Disappearance, 1992

*       Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons, 1994

*       International Convention for the Protection of All Persons Form Forced Disappearance, 2006


Arbitrary Detention: Prohibitions


*       Basic Concept

*       Defining ‘Detention’

*       Treaty Provisions Applicable To All Forms of Detention

*       Disciplinary Measures and Military Service

*       House Arrest and Control Orders

*       Legal Parameters for Deprivation of Liberty

*       Grounds for Detention and Adoption of Non- arbitrary Procedure

*       Administrative Detention on Security Grounds

*       Information on Reasons for Detention

*       Treaty Provisions

*       Meaning of ‘Arrest’ not Limited to Criminal Cases

*       Contents and Timing of the Information

*       Access to Person Outside of Detention Centre

*       Right to Have a Lawyer

*       Access to a Diplomatic or Consular Official

*       Right to Supervision of the Lawfulness of Detention (Habeas Corpus)

*       Treaty Provisions

*       Available To Anyone under Detention on Request

*       Time of the Availment of the Remedy

*       Repetition of Review

*       Hearing by A Court or A Quasi-Judicial Body

*       Nature of Evaluation and Procedural Guarantees

*       Applications during Armed Conflict and Emergency



Module 9

Protecting the Rights of the Accused


Pre-Trial Detention


*       Basic Principle

*       When is Arrest Considered Lawful?

*       Arrest Warrant

*       Arrest Overseas

*       Arrest on Reasonable Suspicion of Having Committed an Offense

*       Prompt Information of Charges against Arrested Person

*       Bringing the Arrested Person Promptly Before a Judicial Officer

*       Treaty Provisions

*       Reasons for This Procedure

*       Complying With the Requirement of ‘Promptly’

*       Required Nature of the Judicial Authority

*       Trial

*       Treaty Provision

*       Basic Principle

*       Elements

*       Derogation during States of Emergency

*       Concept

*       Lawful Arrest: Requirements

*       Bringing the Person Arrested Promptly Before a Judicial Officer


Crimes and Issues of Legality


*       Conviction and Punishment: Legal Basis

*       Treaty Provisions

*       Non-Derogability

*       Clear and Concise Definition of ‘Crime’

*       Drafting and Interpretation of Legal Provision

*       Penalties

*       Problem of ‘Terrorism’ Definition

*       Prosecution of an Offence after Practice of Tolerance

*       International Crimes and Offences under General Principles of Law

*       International Crimes

*       General Principles of Law Recognized By the Community of Nations

*       Individual Criminal Responsibility and Prohibition of Collective Punishment


Right to Be Heard By a Competent Independent and Impartial Tribunal


*       Treaty Provision

*       Right of Access to a Court

*       Introduction

*       Access Limited to Procedures Covered By Fair Trial Provisions

*       Procedures Relating To the Expulsion of Non-Nationals

*       Lack of Access Due To Practical Restraints

*       Immunities

*       Amnesties

*       International Organisations’ Counter-Terrorism Measures

*       Defining ‘Competent, Independent and Impartial Tribunal’

*       Military Tribunals

*       Special Courts


What Constitute A Fair Trial?


*       Introduction

*       Right of the Accused to be Presumed Innocent

*       Introduction

*       Statements by the Executive

*       Military and Anti-Terrorism Trials

*       Lengthy Pre-Trial Detention

*       Placing Persons on a Terrorism List

*       Equality of Arms

*       Basic Principles

*       Equality and Adversarial Procedure

*       Use of Confidential or Anonymous Evidence

*       Public Hearing

*       Treaty Provision and Basic Principles

*       Modalities

*       Exclusion of the Public for Security Reasons

*       Means of Defence

*       Adequate Services of a Lawyer

*       Right Not To Be Compelled To Testify Against Oneself or To Confess Guilt

*       Information on the Nature and the Cause of a Charge

*       Right To Call and Examine Witnesses

*       Right of an Accused to Be Present At the Trial

*       Right to Free Assistance of an Interpreter

*       Right to Trial within a Reasonable Time

*       Right to Appeal To a Higher Tribunal

*       Prohibition of Trial More than Once For the Same Offence

*       Extradition to an Unfair Trial


Module 10

Protection of Other Human Rights


Right to Home, Property, Freedom of Movement and Residence


*       Treaty Provisions

*       Respecting a Person’s Home

*       Respecting a Person’s Property

*       Freedom of Movement and Residence

*       Expulsion of Non-Nationals

*       Destruction of Property, Forcible Evictions and Internal Displacement As A Result Of Military Operations

*       Restrictions on the Loss of Property, Home and Movement during Occupation

*       Loss of Access to Home or Property

*       Destruction of Property as a Penalty

*       Restrictions on Movement

*       Taking of Occupied Territory’s Natural Resources

*       Counter-Terrorism Measures

*       Non-Access to Assets or Other Funds

*       Travel and Residence Restrictions


Freedom of Expression, Association and Conscience


*       Treaty Provisions

*       Freedom of Opinion and Expression and Their Limitations

*       Freedom of Association and Assembly and Their Limitations

*       Defining ‘Conscience’ and ‘Religion’

*       Limitations to Freedom of Expression

*       Definition of Terms

*       Expression Perceived As Supporting Illegal Organizations, Enemy Nations, Or Terrorism

*       Hate Speech and War Propaganda

*       Limitations to Manifestation of Belief

*       Protection of the Military and Secret Service

*       Restrictions during Military Occupation

*       Restrictions on Political Parties

*       Restrictions on Demonstration and Public Protest


Right To Private and Family Life


*       Treaty Provisions

*       Defining ‘Private Life’

*       Defining ‘Family Life’

*       Restrictions on Prisoners

*       Correspondence

*       Contact with Family

*       Surveillance, Interception and Searches

*       Secret Surveillance

*       Search of Premises

*       Search of a Person and Personal Belongings

*       Databases

*       Placement on Terrorism List

*       Expulsion and Displacement

*       Restrictions Imposed During Military Occupation


Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) In Times of Violence


*       Derogations or Limitations

*       Economic Sanctions

*       Role of International Humanitarian Law

*       Interpretation of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in Armed Conflict Situations

*       Case Law

*       Fact-Finding Reports

*       Protection of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) Through Civil and Political Rights Individual Petition Systems

*       Counter-Terrorism Measures and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR)

*       Restrictions to Civil and Political Rights on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR)

*       Certain National Counter-Terrorism Measures

*       Being on the UN Security Council Sanction List

*       Conditions Conducive To the Spread of Terrorism

*       Conditions of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) For Emergency Measures

*       Consideration of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR) For Peace Agreements


Human Rights Law on the Protection of Vulnerable Groups during Armed Conflict


*       Vulnerable Groups

*       Gender Discrimination

*       Definition and Impact of Poverty and Violence

*       Legal Regulation of Gender Discrimination

*       Recognition of Gender Discrimination in Situations of Armed Conflict

*       Militarisation of Boys

*       Requirements to Counter Gender Discrimination in Conflict Situations

*       Violence against Women

*       Respect for Human Rights of People Less Than 18 Years of Age

*       Law Relating On the Use of Persons Fewer than 18 in the Army and Armed Groups


International Relations:

International Organisations, Protocol and Conflict Resolution


Module 11

International Organisations


*       United Nations, introduction

*       The advent of International Organizations

*       The United Nations

*       United Nations System Organization

*       United Nations Protocol

*       Bodies of United Nations and their functions

*       The International Telecom Delegation to the United Nations

*       United Nations, power and power centralization

*       The United Nations security council

*       The International Atomic Energy Agency

*       World Economic Forum For The Middle East

*       Nuclear Emergency Network

*       The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and nuclear security

 Module 12

International Relations and Conflict Resolution


*       International Law

*       Theories of International Relations

*       The Effect of International Relations on Daily Lives

*       International Relations as a Field of Political Science

*       Role and Intended Outcome of Political Science in International Security Affairs

*       Role of Political Science in International Political Economy

*       International Events and Consequence for Iinternational Relations

*       Basic Principles That Shape International Relations

*       Three Basic Principles of International Relations- Dominance, Reciprocity, and Identity

*       International Security and International Political Economy As Sub-Disciplines of  International Relations

*       ‘States’ As the Most Important Actors International Relations

*       Sovereignty of Independent Territorial States

*       State Variance, in Relation to Size of Population and Economy - Microstates To Great Powers

*       The Influence of Non State Actors, Such As Multinational Corporations (MNCs), Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs), and Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)

*       The Effect of the Worldwide Revolution in Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) In Reshaping the Capabilities and Preferences of Actors in International Relations

*       Four Levels of International Relations Analysis - Individual, Domestic, Interstate, And Global

*       Multiple and Simultaneous In International Relations

*       The ‘North-South Divide’, In Wealth – Industrialized vs. Poor

*       World Wars I And II As Exemplars of the Contradiction of the Utility of Hard-Line or Conciliatory Foreign Policies

*       Post War Politics and the ‘Bipolar Standoff’ – Aversion of Wars

*       The Post-Cold War Era and the Co-Operations of Former Rivals

*       The ‘War on Terrorism’: Certainty or Uncertainty of Scope, Duration and International

*       The U.S. Military Campaign in Iraq: Original Objectives and Worldwide Consequences

*       China and Its Increasing Involvement in World Politics.


Programme Number 136 - Advanced International Legal Studies, Intensive Full-Time {3 Months (5 Days -30 Hours) per Week} Programme, Leading to Postgraduate Diploma in Advanced International Legal Studies.